>> Nearly 4.4 million foreign citizens were enrolled on municipal population registers at the beginning of 2013, the equivalent of 7.4 percent of the total number of residents, showing an increase of 8.3 percent as against 2012. The geographical distribution of  foreign citizens arriving in Italy is not homogeneous, since they have tended to settle mainly in the Centre and North area (nearly 86 percent).

>> On 1st January 2013, there were over 3 million 700,000 non-Eu citizens legally residing in Italy, an increase of about 127,000 in comparison to the previous year. Between 2011 and 2012  Italy registered a net decrease in new inflows of non-Eu citizens, equal to 27.0 percent less than the previous year. The decrease in new permits has affected men (-33 percent) more than women (-19.5 percent) and new permits issued for work (- 43.1 percent), while the number of new permits for family reasons declined to a lesser extent (- 17 percent).

>> Non-national foreign population (aged 15-64) shows similar level of education to nationals. Nearly half non-nationals hold only lower secondary school leaving certificate, 49.8 percent against 44.1 percent of Italians, while 40.5 percent hold upper and post-secondary school graduates and 9.7 percent a university degree.

>> Non-national labour force represent 10.6 percent of the total labour force and almost 60 percent reside in the North area of the country. The employment rate for non-nationals is higher than for Italians (64.7 percent in comparison with 60.6 percent), as is the unemployment rate (14.1 percent and 10.3 percent, respectively).The inactivity rate among the non-national population, however, was nearly 8 percent lower than by Italian population (29.4 percent against 37.1 percent).